The origin of the Institute of Measurement Science goes back to the Laboratory for Research and Design of Measuring and Physical Devices. This Laboratory was founded in 1953 as one of the first laboratories or institutes of the newly constituted Slovak Academy of Sciences. The initial goal of the Laboratory was to design, produce and implement original devices dedicated to experimental research within the Slovak Academy of Sciences.

In February 1963 the Laboratory was transformed to the Institute of Theory of Measurement. In 1976 the Institute became the Institute of Measurement and Measuring Techniques. Since January 1981 the Institute had been associated into the Electro-Physical Research Centre of the SAS. The present name the Institute gained in 1988.

The building of the Institute of Measurement Science was built in 1967. The building belongs to the Campus of Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava – Patronka situated in west part of Bratislava, near a forest.